Bone And Joint Day: Osteoporosis, Osteomyelitis, Lupus, Bursitis – Bone And Joint Diseases


Bone and joint day: Bone diseases usually begin after 20 years of age because bone loss is faster than the creation of new bones. These diseases are characterised by weak bones due to low mineral density, easily breakable bones, or infection in the bones. Consumption of a diet that consists of sufficient calcium and vitamin D, exercising regularly, and avoiding smoking and alcohol can help one maintain strong bones when they are young. Joint disorders cause joint pain, make the joints stiff, red or swollen, and are chronic. Meanwhile, joint injuries can occur due to the overuse of a joint, or a sudden injury, such as an accident. 

In the case of both joint disorders and injuries, not only are bones affected, but also soft tissues around the regions where multiple bones come together, including cartilage, tendons and ligaments. 

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Bone problems are of different kinds such as low bone density and osteoporosis, which make the bones weak and more likely to break; Paget’s disease of bone, a chronic bone disorder in which there is excessive breakdown and regrowth of bone; Osteogenesis imperfecta, an inherited or a genetic bone disorder that is present at birth, and is characterised by soft bones that break or fracture easily; osteopenia, a medical condition in which there is a decrease in bone mineral density below normal reference values, but not low enough to meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered osteoporotic; postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common type of osteoporosis, and a condition which occurs due to oestrogen deficiency, resulting in an increase in bone turnover, the process of resorption or bone breakdown leading to the release of minerals and transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood, followed by replacement by new bone with little change in shape; osteomyelitis or an infection that can reach a bone by travelling through the bloodstream; and bone cancer, which commonly affects the pelvis or long bones in the arms and legs, and is more common in males than in females. 

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Certain bone diseases can occur due to genetic reasons. 

Joint diseases include arthritis, which may cause joint pain and swelling; lupus, an autoimmune disease that can affect joint and muscle pain; and Sjögren’s Syndrome, an autoimmune disease that affects glands making moisture in many parts of the body, according to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Sprains and strains, and dislocated joints are some joint disorders occurring from sudden injuries. Stretched or torn muscles or tendons that happen from a sudden injury or movement, such as lifting a heavy object, result in acute strains. Stretched or torn ligaments cause sprains. 

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When bones are pushed or pulled out of position, joint dislocation occurs. 

Overuse of a joint due to continuous hard work or carrying out the same movements over and over leads to overuse injuries. Bursitis, tendinitis, and chronic strain are examples of joint overuse injuries.

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Bursitis is characterised by irritation and swelling of the bursa, a small fluid-filled sac that works as a pad between the bones of a joint and the moving parts around it, such as muscles, tendons and skin. The bursa becomes filled with extra fluid in the case of bursitis. 

Overuse of a tendon can make it swell or cause the joint to become painful to move. This is called tendinitis. 

When one’s muscles or tendons stretch or tear slowly over time because of repeating the same movements, chronic strain occurs. 

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